This work is the result of a collaboration with the UMR 0545 of INRAE Aurillac. It can be accessed hereFrétin M, Gérard A, Ferlay A, Martin B, Buchin S, Theil S, Rifa E, Loux V, Rué O, Chassard C, Delbès C. Integration of Multiomic Data to Characterize the Influence of Milk Fat Composition on Cantal-Type Cheese Microbiota. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(2):334. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020334
A previous study identified differences in rind aspects between Cantal-type cheeses manufactured from the same skimmed milk, supplemented with cream derived either from pasture-raised cows (P) or from cows fed with maize silage (M). Using an integrated analysis of multiomic data, the present study aimed at investigating potential correlations between cream origin and metagenomic, lipidomic and volatolomic profiles of these Cantal cheeses. Fungal and bacterial communities of cheese cores and rinds were characterized using DNA metabarcoding at different ripening times. Lipidome and volatolome were obtained from the previous study at the end of ripening. Rind microbial communities, especially fungal communities, were influenced by cream origin. Among bacteria, Brachybacterium were more abundant in P-derived cheeses than in M-derived cheeses after 90 and 150 days of ripening. Sporendonema casei, a yeast added as a ripening starter during Cantal manufacture, which contributes to rind typical aspect, had a lower relative abundance in P-derived cheeses after 150 days of ripening. Relative abundance of this fungus was highly negatively correlated with concentrations of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids and to concentrations of particular volatile organic compounds, including 1-pentanol and 3-methyl-2-pentanol. Overall, these results evidenced original interactions between milk fat composition and the development of fungal communities in cheeses.